scipy.ndimage.

# binary_propagation#

scipy.ndimage.binary_propagation(input, structure=None, mask=None, output=None, border_value=0, origin=0)[source]#

Multidimensional binary propagation with the given structuring element.

Parameters:
inputarray_like

Binary image to be propagated inside mask.

structurearray_like, optional

Structuring element used in the successive dilations. The output may depend on the structuring element, especially if mask has several connex components. If no structuring element is provided, an element is generated with a squared connectivity equal to one.

maskarray_like, optional

Binary mask defining the region into which input is allowed to propagate.

outputndarray, optional

Array of the same shape as input, into which the output is placed. By default, a new array is created.

border_valueint (cast to 0 or 1), optional

Value at the border in the output array.

originint or tuple of ints, optional

Placement of the filter, by default 0.

Returns:
binary_propagationndarray

Binary propagation of input inside mask.

Notes

This function is functionally equivalent to calling binary_dilation with the number of iterations less than one: iterative dilation until the result does not change anymore.

The succession of an erosion and propagation inside the original image can be used instead of an opening for deleting small objects while keeping the contours of larger objects untouched.

References

[1]
[2]

I.T. Young, J.J. Gerbrands, and L.J. van Vliet, “Fundamentals of image processing”, 1998 ftp://qiftp.tudelft.nl/DIPimage/docs/FIP2.3.pdf

Examples

```>>> from scipy import ndimage
>>> import numpy as np
>>> input = np.zeros((8, 8), dtype=int)
>>> input[2, 2] = 1
>>> mask = np.zeros((8, 8), dtype=int)
>>> mask[1:4, 1:4] = mask[4, 4]  = mask[6:8, 6:8] = 1
>>> input
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> mask
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1]])
>>> ndimage.binary_propagation(input, mask=mask).astype(int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> ndimage.binary_propagation(input, mask=mask,\
... structure=np.ones((3,3))).astype(int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
```
```>>> # Comparison between opening and erosion+propagation
>>> a = np.zeros((6,6), dtype=int)
>>> a[2:5, 2:5] = 1; a[0, 0] = 1; a[5, 5] = 1
>>> a
array([[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1]])
>>> ndimage.binary_opening(a).astype(int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> b = ndimage.binary_erosion(a)
>>> b.astype(int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
>>> ndimage.binary_propagation(b, mask=a).astype(int)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]])
```