# Interpolate transition guide#

## 1. How to transition away from using `interp2d`#

`interp2d` silently switches between interpolation on a 2D regular grid and interpolating 2D scattered data. The switch is based on the lengths of the (raveled) `x`, `y`, and `z` arrays. In short, for regular grid use `scipy.interpolate.RectBivariateSpline`; for scattered interpolation, use the `bisprep/bisplev` combo. Below we give examples of the literal point-for-point transition, which should preserve the `interp2d` results exactly.

### 1.1 `interp2d` on a regular grid#

We start from the (slightly modified) docstring example.

```>>> import numpy as np
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> from scipy.interpolate import interp2d, RectBivariateSpline

>>> x = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 0.25)
>>> y = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 0.25)
>>> xx, yy = np.meshgrid(x, y)
>>> z = np.sin(xx**2 + 2.*yy**2)
>>> f = interp2d(x, y, z, kind='cubic')
```

This is the “regular grid” code path, because

```>>> z.size == len(x) * len(y)
True
```

Also, note that `x.size != y.size`:

```>>> x.size, y.size
(41, 51)
```

Now, let’s build a convenience function to construct the interpolator and plot it.

```>>> def plot(f, xnew, ynew):
...    fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(8, 4))
...    znew = f(xnew, ynew)
...    ax1.plot(x, z[0, :], 'ro-', xnew, znew[0, :], 'b-')
...    im = ax2.imshow(znew)
...    plt.colorbar(im, ax=ax2)
...    plt.show()
...    return znew
...
>>> xnew = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 1e-2)
>>> ynew = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 1e-2)
>>> znew_i = plot(f, xnew, ynew)
```

#### Replacement: Use `RectBivariateSpline`, the result is identical#

Note the transposes: first, in the constructor, second, you need to transpose the result of the evaluation. This is to undo the transposes `interp2d` does.

```>>> r = RectBivariateSpline(x, y, z.T)
>>> rt = lambda xnew, ynew: r(xnew, ynew).T
>>> znew_r = plot(rt, xnew, ynew)
```

```>>> from numpy.testing import assert_allclose
>>> assert_allclose(znew_i, znew_r, atol=1e-14)
```

#### Interpolation order: linear, cubic etc#

`interp2d` defaults to `kind="linear"`, which is linear in both directions, `x-` and `y-`. `RectBivariateSpline`, on the other hand, defaults to cubic interpolation, `kx=3, ky=3`.

Here is the exact equivalence:

interp2d

RectBivariateSpline

no kwargs

kx = 1, ky = 1

kind=’linear’

kx = 1, ky = 1

kind=’cubic’

kx = 3, ky = 3

### 1.2. `interp2d` with full coordinates of points (scattered interpolation)#

Here, we flatten the meshgrid from the previous exercise to illustrate the functionality.

```>>> xxr = xx.ravel()
>>> yyr = yy.ravel()
>>> zzr = z.ravel()
>>> f = interp2d(xxr, yyr, zzr, kind='cubic')
```

Note that this the “not regular grid” code path, meant for scattered data, with `len(x) == len(y) == len(z)`.

```>>> len(xxr) == len(yyr) == len(zzr)
True
```
```>>> xnew = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 1e-2)
>>> ynew = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 1e-2)
>>> znew_i = plot(f, xnew, ynew)
```

#### Replacement: Use `scipy.interpolate.bisplrep` / `scipy.interpolate.bisplev` directly#

```>>> from scipy.interpolate import bisplrep, bisplev
>>> tck = bisplrep(xxr, yyr, zzr, kx=3, ky=3, s=0)
# convenience: make up a callable from bisplev
>>> ff = lambda xnew, ynew: bisplev(xnew, ynew, tck).T   # Note the transpose, to mimic what interp2d does
>>> znew_b = plot(ff, xnew, ynew)
```

```>>> assert_allclose(znew_i, znew_b, atol=1e-15)
```

#### Interpolation order: linear, cubic etc#

`interp2d` defaults to `kind="linear"`, which is linear in both directions, `x-` and `y-`. `bisplrep`, on the other hand, defaults to cubic interpolation, `kx=3, ky=3`.

Here is the exact equivalence:

`interp2d`

`bisplrep`

no kwargs

kx = 1, ky = 1

kind=’linear’

kx = 1, ky = 1

kind=’cubic’

kx = 3, ky = 3

## 2. Alternative to `interp2d`: regular grid#

For new code, the recommended alternative is `RegularGridInterpolator`. It is an independent implementation, not based on FITPACK. Supports nearest, linear interpolation and odd-order tensor product splines.

The spline knots are guaranteed to coincide with the data points.

Note that, here:

1. the tuple argument, is `(x, y)`

2. `z` array needs a transpose

3. the keyword name is method, not kind

4. `bounds_error` argument is `True` by default.

```>>> from scipy.interpolate import RegularGridInterpolator as RGI
>>> r = RGI((x, y), z.T, method='linear', bounds_error=False)
```

Evaluation: create a 2D meshgrid. Use indexing=’ij’ and `sparse=True` to save some memory:

```>>> xxnew, yynew = np.meshgrid(xnew, ynew, indexing='ij', sparse=True)
```

Evaluate, note the tuple argument:

```>>> znew_reggrid = r((xxnew, yynew))
```
```>>> fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(8, 4))
# Again, note the transpose to undo the `interp2d` convention
>>> znew_reggrid_t = znew_reggrid.T
>>> ax1.plot(x, z[0, :], 'ro-', xnew, znew_reggrid_t[0, :], 'b-')
>>> im = ax2.imshow(znew_reggrid_t)
>>> plt.colorbar(im, ax=ax2)
```

## 3. Scattered 2D linear interpolation: prefer `LinearNDInterpolator` to `SmoothBivariateSpline` or `bisplrep`#

For 2D scattered linear interpolation, both `SmoothBivariateSpline` and `biplrep` may either emit warnings, or fail to interpolate the data, or produce splines which with knots away from the data points. Instead, prefer `LinearNDInterpolator`, which is based on triangulating the data via `QHull`.

```# TestSmoothBivariateSpline::test_integral
>>> from scipy.interpolate import SmoothBivariateSpline, LinearNDInterpolator
>>> x = np.array([1,1,1,2,2,2,4,4,4])
>>> y = np.array([1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3])
>>> z = np.array([0,7,8,3,4,7,1,3,4])
```

Now, use the linear interpolation over Qhull-based triangulation of data:

```>>> xy = np.c_[x, y]   # or just list(zip(x, y))
>>> lut2 = LinearNDInterpolator(xy, z)
>>> X = np.linspace(min(x), max(x))
>>> Y = np.linspace(min(y), max(y))
>>> X, Y = np.meshgrid(X, Y)
```

The result is easy to understand and interpret:

```>>> fig = plt.figure()
>>> ax.plot_wireframe(X, Y, lut2(X, Y))
>>> ax.scatter(x, y, z,  'o', color='k', s=48)
```

Note that `bisplrep` does something different! It may place spline knots outside of the data.

For illustration, consider the same data from the previous example:

```>>> tck = bisplrep(x, y, z, kx=1, ky=1, s=0)
>>> fig = plt.figure()
>>> xx = np.linspace(min(x), max(x))
>>> yy = np.linspace(min(y), max(y))
>>> X, Y = np.meshgrid(xx, yy)
>>> Z = bisplev(xx, yy, tck)
>>> Z = Z.reshape(*X.shape).T
>>> ax.plot_wireframe(X, Y, Z, rstride=2, cstride=2)
>>> ax.scatter(x, y, z,  'o', color='k', s=48)
```

Also, `SmoothBivariateSpline` fails to interpolate the data. Again, use the same data from the previous example.

```>>> lut = SmoothBivariateSpline(x, y, z, kx=1, ky=1, s=0)
>>> fig = plt.figure()
Note that both `SmoothBivariateSpline` and `bisplrep` results have artifacts, unlike the `LinearNDInterpolator`’s. Issues illustrated here were reported for linear interpolation, however the FITPACK knot-selection mechanism does not guarantee to avoid either of these issues for higher-order (e.g. cubic) spline surfaces.