# scipy.stats.levy#

scipy.stats.levy = <scipy.stats._continuous_distns.levy_gen object>[source]#

A Levy continuous random variable.

As an instance of the rv_continuous class, levy object inherits from it a collection of generic methods (see below for the full list), and completes them with details specific for this particular distribution.

Notes

The probability density function for levy is:

$f(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi x^3}} \exp\left(-\frac{1}{2x}\right)$

for $$x > 0$$.

This is the same as the Levy-stable distribution with $$a=1/2$$ and $$b=1$$.

The probability density above is defined in the “standardized” form. To shift and/or scale the distribution use the loc and scale parameters. Specifically, levy.pdf(x, loc, scale) is identically equivalent to levy.pdf(y) / scale with y = (x - loc) / scale. Note that shifting the location of a distribution does not make it a “noncentral” distribution; noncentral generalizations of some distributions are available in separate classes.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from scipy.stats import levy
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1)


Calculate the first four moments:

>>> mean, var, skew, kurt = levy.stats(moments='mvsk')


Display the probability density function (pdf):

>>> # levy is very heavy-tailed.
>>> # To show a nice plot, let's cut off the upper 40 percent.
>>> a, b = levy.ppf(0), levy.ppf(0.6)
>>> x = np.linspace(a, b, 100)
>>> ax.plot(x, levy.pdf(x),
...        'r-', lw=5, alpha=0.6, label='levy pdf')


Alternatively, the distribution object can be called (as a function) to fix the shape, location and scale parameters. This returns a “frozen” RV object holding the given parameters fixed.

Freeze the distribution and display the frozen pdf:

>>> rv = levy()
>>> ax.plot(x, rv.pdf(x), 'k-', lw=2, label='frozen pdf')


Check accuracy of cdf and ppf:

>>> vals = levy.ppf([0.001, 0.5, 0.999])
>>> np.allclose([0.001, 0.5, 0.999], levy.cdf(vals))
True


Generate random numbers:

>>> r = levy.rvs(size=1000)


And compare the histogram:

>>> # manual binning to ignore the tail
>>> bins = np.concatenate((np.linspace(a, b, 20), [np.max(r)]))
>>> ax.hist(r, bins=bins, density=True, histtype='stepfilled', alpha=0.2)
>>> ax.set_xlim([x, x[-1]])
>>> ax.legend(loc='best', frameon=False)
>>> plt.show()


Methods

 rvs(loc=0, scale=1, size=1, random_state=None) Random variates. pdf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Probability density function. logpdf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the probability density function. cdf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Cumulative distribution function. logcdf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the cumulative distribution function. sf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Survival function (also defined as 1 - cdf, but sf is sometimes more accurate). logsf(x, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the survival function. ppf(q, loc=0, scale=1) Percent point function (inverse of cdf — percentiles). isf(q, loc=0, scale=1) Inverse survival function (inverse of sf). moment(order, loc=0, scale=1) Non-central moment of the specified order. stats(loc=0, scale=1, moments=’mv’) Mean(‘m’), variance(‘v’), skew(‘s’), and/or kurtosis(‘k’). entropy(loc=0, scale=1) (Differential) entropy of the RV. fit(data) Parameter estimates for generic data. See scipy.stats.rv_continuous.fit for detailed documentation of the keyword arguments. expect(func, args=(), loc=0, scale=1, lb=None, ub=None, conditional=False, **kwds) Expected value of a function (of one argument) with respect to the distribution. median(loc=0, scale=1) Median of the distribution. mean(loc=0, scale=1) Mean of the distribution. var(loc=0, scale=1) Variance of the distribution. std(loc=0, scale=1) Standard deviation of the distribution. interval(confidence, loc=0, scale=1) Confidence interval with equal areas around the median.