# Interpolate transition guide#

This notebook contains three sets of demonstrations:

Note: Since this notebook shows usage of `interp2d` (which is marked for deprecation), we will silence deprecation warnings for simplicity:

```import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')
```

## 1. How to transition away from using `interp2d`#

`interp2d` silently switches between interpolation on a 2D regular grid and interpolatin 2D scattered data. The switch is based on the lengths of the (raveled) `x`, `y`, and `z` arrays. In short, for regular grid use `scipy.interpolate.RectBivariateSpline`; for scattered interpolation, use the `bisprep/bisplev` combo. Below we give examples of the literal point-for-point transition, which should preserve the `interp2d` results exactly.

### 1.1 `interp2d` on a regular grid#

We start from the (slightly modified) docstring example.

```import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy.interpolate import interp2d, RectBivariateSpline

x = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 0.25)
y = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 0.25)
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(x, y)
z = np.sin(xx**2 + 2.*yy**2)
f = interp2d(x, y, z, kind='cubic')
```

This is the “regular grid” code path, because

```z.size == len(x) * len(y)
```
```True
```

Also, note that `x.size != y.size`:

```x.size, y.size
```
```(41, 51)
```

Now, let’s build a convenience function to construct the interpolator and plot it.

```def plot(f, xnew, ynew):
fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(8, 4))
znew = f(xnew, ynew)

ax1.plot(x, z[0, :], 'ro-', xnew, znew[0, :], 'b-')

im = ax2.imshow(znew)
plt.colorbar(im, ax=ax2)

plt.show()
return znew
```

Plotting:

```xnew = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 1e-2)
ynew = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 1e-2)
znew_i = plot(f, xnew, ynew)
``` #### Replacement: Use `RectBivariateSpline`, the result is identical#

Note the transposes: first, in the constructor, second, you need to transpose the result of the evaluation. This is to undo the transposes `interp2d` does.

```r = RectBivariateSpline(x, y, z.T)

rt = lambda xnew, ynew: r(xnew, ynew).T
znew_r = plot(rt, xnew, ynew)
``` ```from numpy.testing import assert_allclose
assert_allclose(znew_i, znew_r, atol=1e-14)
```

### 1.2. `interp2d` with full coordinates of points (scattered interpolation)#

Here, we flatten the meshgrid from the previous exercise to illustrate the functionality.

```xxr = xx.ravel()
yyr = yy.ravel()
zzr = z.ravel()

f = interp2d(xxr, yyr, zzr, kind='cubic')
```

Note that this the “not regular grid” code path, meant for scattered data, with `len(x) == len(y) == len(z)`.

```len(xxr) == len(yyr) == len(zzr)
```
```True
```
```xnew = np.arange(-5.01, 5.01, 1e-2)
ynew = np.arange(-5.01, 7.51, 1e-2)
znew_i = plot(f, xnew, ynew)
``` #### Replacement: Use `scipy.interpolate.bisplrep` / `scipy.interpolate.bisplev` directly#

```from scipy.interpolate import bisplrep, bisplev
tck = bisplrep(xxr, yyr, zzr, kx=3, ky=3, s=0)
# convenience: make up a callable from bisplev
ff = lambda xnew, ynew: bisplev(xnew, ynew, tck).T   # Note the transpose, to mimic what interp2d does

znew_b = plot(ff, xnew, ynew)
``` ```assert_allclose(znew_i, znew_b, atol=1e-15)
```

## 2. Alternative to `interp2d`: regular grid#

For new code, the recommended alternative is `RegularGridInterpolator`. It is an independent implementation, not based on FITPACK. Supports nearest, linear interpolation and odd-order tensor product splines.

The spline knots are guaranteed to coincide with the data points.

Note that, here:

1. the tuple argument, is `(x, y)`

2. `z` array needs a transpose

3. the keyword name is method, not kind

4. `bounds_error` argument is `True` by default.

```from scipy.interpolate import RegularGridInterpolator as RGI

r = RGI((x, y), z.T, method='linear', bounds_error=False)
```

Evaluation: create a 2D meshgrid. Use indexing=’ij’ and `sparse=True` to save some memory:

```xxnew, yynew = np.meshgrid(xnew, ynew, indexing='ij', sparse=True)
```

Evaluate, note the tuple argument:

```znew_reggrid = r((xxnew, yynew))
```
```fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(8, 4))

# Again, note the transpose to undo the `interp2d` convention
znew_reggrid_t = znew_reggrid.T

ax1.plot(x, z[0, :], 'ro-', xnew, znew_reggrid_t[0, :], 'b-')

im = ax2.imshow(znew_reggrid_t)
plt.colorbar(im, ax=ax2)
```
```<matplotlib.colorbar.Colorbar at 0x7f1657ebb8e0>
``` ## 3. Scattered 2D linear interpolation: prefer `LinearNDInterpolator` to `SmoothBivariateSpline` or `bisplrep`#

For 2D scattered linear interpolation, both `SmoothBivariateSpline` and `biplrep` may either emit warnings, or fail to interpolate the data, or produce splines which with knots away from the data points. “Instead, prefer `LinearNDInterpolator`, which is based on triangulating the data via `QHull`.

```# TestSmoothBivariateSpline::test_integral
from scipy.interpolate import SmoothBivariateSpline, LinearNDInterpolator

x = np.array([1,1,1,2,2,2,4,4,4])
y = np.array([1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3])
z = np.array([0,7,8,3,4,7,1,3,4])
```

Now, use the linear interpolation over Qhull-based triangulation of data:

```xy = np.c_[x, y]   # or just list(zip(x, y))
lut2 = LinearNDInterpolator(xy, z)

X = np.linspace(min(x), max(x))
Y = np.linspace(min(y), max(y))
X, Y = np.meshgrid(X, Y)
```

The result is easy to understand and interpret:

```fig = plt.figure()

ax.plot_wireframe(X, Y, lut2(X, Y))
ax.scatter(x, y, z,  'o', color='k', s=48)
```
```<mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.art3d.Path3DCollection at 0x7f1657d09790>
``` Note that `bisplrep` does something different! It may place spline knots outside of the data.

For illustration, consider the same data from the previous example:

```tck = bisplrep(x, y, z, kx=1, ky=1, s=0)

fig = plt.figure()

xx = np.linspace(min(x), max(x))
yy = np.linspace(min(y), max(y))
X, Y = np.meshgrid(xx, yy)
Z = bisplev(xx, yy, tck)
Z = Z.reshape(*X.shape).T

ax.plot_wireframe(X, Y, Z, rstride=2, cstride=2)
ax.scatter(x, y, z,  'o', color='k', s=48)
```
```<mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.art3d.Path3DCollection at 0x7f16544c6a00>
``` Also, `SmoothBivariateSpline` fails to interpolate the data. Again, use the same data from the previous example.

```lut = SmoothBivariateSpline(x, y, z, kx=1, ky=1, s=0)

fig = plt.figure()
```<mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.art3d.Path3DCollection at 0x7f1657be86d0> Note that both `SmoothBivariateSpline` and `bisplrep` results have artifacts, unlike the `LinearNDInterpolator`’s. Issues illustrated here were reported for linear interpolation, however the FITPACK knot-selection mechanism does not guarantee to avoid either of these issues for higher-order (e.g. cubic) spline surfaces.