# scipy.stats.skewnorm#

scipy.stats.skewnorm = <scipy.stats._continuous_distns.skewnorm_gen object>[source]#

A skew-normal random variable.

As an instance of the rv_continuous class, skewnorm object inherits from it a collection of generic methods (see below for the full list), and completes them with details specific for this particular distribution.

Notes

The pdf is:

skewnorm.pdf(x, a) = 2 * norm.pdf(x) * norm.cdf(a*x)


skewnorm takes a real number $$a$$ as a skewness parameter When a = 0 the distribution is identical to a normal distribution (norm). rvs implements the method of [1].

The probability density above is defined in the “standardized” form. To shift and/or scale the distribution use the loc and scale parameters. Specifically, skewnorm.pdf(x, a, loc, scale) is identically equivalent to skewnorm.pdf(y, a) / scale with y = (x - loc) / scale. Note that shifting the location of a distribution does not make it a “noncentral” distribution; noncentral generalizations of some distributions are available in separate classes.

References

[1]

A. Azzalini and A. Capitanio (1999). Statistical applications of the multivariate skew-normal distribution. J. Roy. Statist. Soc., B 61, 579-602. arXiv:0911.2093

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from scipy.stats import skewnorm
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1)


Calculate the first four moments:

>>> a = 4
>>> mean, var, skew, kurt = skewnorm.stats(a, moments='mvsk')


Display the probability density function (pdf):

>>> x = np.linspace(skewnorm.ppf(0.01, a),
...                 skewnorm.ppf(0.99, a), 100)
>>> ax.plot(x, skewnorm.pdf(x, a),
...        'r-', lw=5, alpha=0.6, label='skewnorm pdf')


Alternatively, the distribution object can be called (as a function) to fix the shape, location and scale parameters. This returns a “frozen” RV object holding the given parameters fixed.

Freeze the distribution and display the frozen pdf:

>>> rv = skewnorm(a)
>>> ax.plot(x, rv.pdf(x), 'k-', lw=2, label='frozen pdf')


Check accuracy of cdf and ppf:

>>> vals = skewnorm.ppf([0.001, 0.5, 0.999], a)
>>> np.allclose([0.001, 0.5, 0.999], skewnorm.cdf(vals, a))
True


Generate random numbers:

>>> r = skewnorm.rvs(a, size=1000)


And compare the histogram:

>>> ax.hist(r, density=True, bins='auto', histtype='stepfilled', alpha=0.2)
>>> ax.set_xlim([x[0], x[-1]])
>>> ax.legend(loc='best', frameon=False)
>>> plt.show()


Methods

 rvs(a, loc=0, scale=1, size=1, random_state=None) Random variates. pdf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Probability density function. logpdf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the probability density function. cdf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Cumulative distribution function. logcdf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the cumulative distribution function. sf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Survival function (also defined as 1 - cdf, but sf is sometimes more accurate). logsf(x, a, loc=0, scale=1) Log of the survival function. ppf(q, a, loc=0, scale=1) Percent point function (inverse of cdf — percentiles). isf(q, a, loc=0, scale=1) Inverse survival function (inverse of sf). moment(order, a, loc=0, scale=1) Non-central moment of the specified order. stats(a, loc=0, scale=1, moments=’mv’) Mean(‘m’), variance(‘v’), skew(‘s’), and/or kurtosis(‘k’). entropy(a, loc=0, scale=1) (Differential) entropy of the RV. fit(data) Parameter estimates for generic data. See scipy.stats.rv_continuous.fit for detailed documentation of the keyword arguments. expect(func, args=(a,), loc=0, scale=1, lb=None, ub=None, conditional=False, **kwds) Expected value of a function (of one argument) with respect to the distribution. median(a, loc=0, scale=1) Median of the distribution. mean(a, loc=0, scale=1) Mean of the distribution. var(a, loc=0, scale=1) Variance of the distribution. std(a, loc=0, scale=1) Standard deviation of the distribution. interval(confidence, a, loc=0, scale=1) Confidence interval with equal areas around the median.