Calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient and the p-value for testing non-correlation.
The Pearson correlation coefficient measures the linear relationship between two datasets. Strictly speaking, Pearson’s correlation requires that each dataset be normally distributed, and not necessarily zero-mean. Like other correlation coefficients, this one varies between -1 and +1 with 0 implying no correlation. Correlations of -1 or +1 imply an exact linear relationship. Positive correlations imply that as x increases, so does y. Negative correlations imply that as x increases, y decreases.
The p-value roughly indicates the probability of an uncorrelated system producing datasets that have a Pearson correlation at least as extreme as the one computed from these datasets. The p-values are not entirely reliable but are probably reasonable for datasets larger than 500 or so.
x : (N,) array_like
y : (N,) array_like
r : float
Pearson’s correlation coefficient
p-value : float