scipy.special.lambertw¶

scipy.special.
lambertw
(z, k=0, tol=1e8)[source]¶ Lambert W function.
The Lambert W function W(z) is defined as the inverse function of
w * exp(w)
. In other words, the value ofW(z)
is such thatz = W(z) * exp(W(z))
for any complex numberz
.The Lambert W function is a multivalued function with infinitely many branches. Each branch gives a separate solution of the equation
z = w exp(w)
. Here, the branches are indexed by the integer k.Parameters:  z : array_like
Input argument.
 k : int, optional
Branch index.
 tol : float, optional
Evaluation tolerance.
Returns:  w : array
w will have the same shape as z.
See also
wrightomega
 the Wright Omega function
Notes
All branches are supported by
lambertw
:lambertw(z)
gives the principal solution (branch 0)lambertw(z, k)
gives the solution on branch k
The Lambert W function has two partially real branches: the principal branch (k = 0) is real for real
z > 1/e
, and thek = 1
branch is real for1/e < z < 0
. All branches exceptk = 0
have a logarithmic singularity atz = 0
.Possible issues
The evaluation can become inaccurate very close to the branch point at
1/e
. In some corner cases,lambertw
might currently fail to converge, or can end up on the wrong branch.Algorithm
Halley’s iteration is used to invert
w * exp(w)
, using a firstorder asymptotic approximation (O(log(w)) or O(w)) as the initial estimate.The definition, implementation and choice of branches is based on [2].
References
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambert_W_function [2] (1, 2) Corless et al, “On the Lambert W function”, Adv. Comp. Math. 5 (1996) 329359. http://www.apmaths.uwo.ca/~djeffrey/Offprints/Wadvcm.pdf Examples
The Lambert W function is the inverse of
w exp(w)
:>>> from scipy.special import lambertw >>> w = lambertw(1) >>> w (0.56714329040978384+0j) >>> w * np.exp(w) (1.0+0j)
Any branch gives a valid inverse:
>>> w = lambertw(1, k=3) >>> w (2.8535817554090377+17.113535539412148j) >>> w*np.exp(w) (1.0000000000000002+1.609823385706477e15j)
Applications to equationsolving
The Lambert W function may be used to solve various kinds of equations, such as finding the value of the infinite power tower \(z^{z^{z^{\ldots}}}\):
>>> def tower(z, n): ... if n == 0: ... return z ... return z ** tower(z, n1) ... >>> tower(0.5, 100) 0.641185744504986 >>> lambertw(np.log(0.5)) / np.log(0.5) (0.64118574450498589+0j)