Building redistributable binaries#

The intended audience for this section is anyone who wants to build SciPy and deploy it anywhere else than their own machine - from distro packagers to users who want to build wheels to deploy to their production environment

When python -m build or pip wheel is used to build a SciPy wheel, that wheel will rely on external shared libraries (at least for BLAS/LAPACK and a Fortran compiler runtime library, perhaps other libraries). Such wheels therefore will only run on the system on which they are built. See the pypackaging-native content under “Building and installing or uploading artifacts” for more context on that.

A wheel like that is therefore an intermediate stage to producing a binary that can be distributed. That final binary may be a wheel - in that case, run auditwheel (Linux), delocate (macOS), delvewheel (Windows) or repairwheel (platform-independent) to vendor the required shared libraries into the wheel.

The final binary may also be in another packaging format (e.g., a .rpm, .deb or .conda package). In that case, there are packaging ecosystem-specific tools to first install the wheel into a staging area, then making the extension modules in that install location relocatable (e.g., by rewriting RPATHs), and then repackaging it into the final package format.

Build and runtime dependencies#

The Python build and runtime dependencies that are needed to build SciPy can be found in the pyproject.toml metadata. Note that for released versions of SciPy, dependencies will likely have upper bounds. Each upper bound has comments above it; packagers are free to remove or loosen those upper bound in most cases (except for numpy). E.g.:

# The upper bound on pybind11 is pre-emptive only

#   ...
#   3. The <2.3 upper bound is for matching the numpy deprecation policy,
#      it should not be loosened.

Non-Python build requirements are:

  • C, C++ and Fortran compilers

  • BLAS and LAPACK libraries

  • ninja

  • pkg-config

Minimum versions of common compilers are enforced in the top-level file. The minimum LAPACK version is currently 3.7.1. More detailed information on these build dependencies can be found in Toolchain Roadmap.

Stripping the test suite from a wheel or installed package#

By default, an installed version of scipy includes the full test suite. That test suite, including data files and compiled extension modules that are test-only, takes up about 4.5 MB in a wheel (for x86-64, as of v1.14.0), and more than that on disk. In cases where binary size matters, packagers may want to remove the test suite. As of SciPy 1.14.0, there is a convenient way of doing this, making use of Meson’s install tags functionality. It is a one-liner:

$ python -m build -wnx -Cinstall-args=--tags=runtime,python-runtime,devel


Note that in the above command -wnx means --wheel --no-isolation --skip-dependency-check. It assumes that the packager has already set up the build environment, which is usually the case for distro packaging. The install tags feature works equally well with isolated builds (e.g. pip install scipy --no-binary -Cinstall-args=--tags=runtime,python-runtime,devel).

If you want to produce a separate package for the tests themselves, say under the name scipy-tests, then edit pyproject.toml to change the project name:

name = "scipy-tests"

And then build with:

$ python -m build -wnx -Cinstall-args=--tags=tests

The above would build the whole package twice; in order to rebuild in a cached fashion, use the -Cbuild-dir=build build option:

$     $ # apply patch to change the project name in pyproject.toml
$ python -m build -wnx -Cbuild-dir=build -Cinstall-args=--tags=tests

The end result will look something like:

$ ls -lh dist/*.whl
...  20M  ...  dist/scipy-1.14.0-cp311-cp311-linux_x86_64.whl
...  4,5M ...  dist/scipy_tests-1.14.0-cp311-cp311-linux_x86_64.whl